3 Principles for Voice-over

From the book ‘ E-learning and the Science of Instruction ‘ by Ruth Clark and Richard Meyer . Three principles can be derived for the use of audio . Voiceover in e-learning. The modality principle is a big name for something simple. This is about reducing the cognitive load. If students have to read something as well as look at a moving image, their attention is divided and they are forced to work harder, which ultimately  Papua New Guinea B2B List does not benefit learning. So if the focus is on the screen in terms of visual information (video or graphic elements), it is a good idea to use a voice over instead of written text.

2. The Redundancy Principle

According to the redundancy principle, it does not work well to have the voice-over verbalize the text, in other words: literally pronounce the text that can also Papua New Guinea B2B List  be read. This would actually diminish a learner’s ability to take in everything. So if you want to use the written and spoken word on the screen at the same time, you need a good reason. It can work if you need to put extra emphasis on something, but stick to a short text. If the e-learning contains a lot of text that really needs to be read, try to summarize it in bullet points or summaries, and then let the voice-over provide an overview.


3. The contiguity principle

The point here is that you have to hear the voice-over at the  same time as the image. The narrator or voiceover describes a procedure while the video shows its demonstration. So not after or before, because that only creates an extra load on the working memory. It sounds logical and simple, but it is important to keep in mind.

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